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医学阅读(一)

2005-11-14 00:00  来源:中国生命科学论坛    打印 | 收藏 |
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  Lesson One

  Medical English for Ph. D. Undergraduates 2002

  Purpose:1. Understand a writing in a medical way;

  2. Know the use of words in a scientific way;

  3. Learn about some biomedical ideas, theories and conceptions in an English way;

  4. Learn how to read and write medical terms in an easier way

  In short:

  1. Structure / Format

  2. Use of words

  3. Background knowledge

  4. Word building

  My precept about learning and teaching:

  n Learning is the student‘s own business;

  n You can lead a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink;

  n If the student give out, the teacher will give out

  So you can do whatever you like in the classroom so far you do not interfere my teaching activities, and how much you can learn from my lectures depends largely on you rather on the teacher.

  Requirements:

  1. Prepare the lessons before class;

  2. Use your mind in class;

  3. Do the assignments after class

  Lesson One

  Medical Training and Specialists

  Main Topic: How a medical student is trained into a medical doctor, or MD in the USA.

  1.1 History of Medical Education in America

  In 18th-century colonial America, those who wanted to become physicians either learned as personal students from established professionals or went abroad to study in the traditional schools of London, Paris, and Edinburgh. Medicine was first taught formally by specialists at the University of Pennsylvania, beginning in 1765, and in 1776 at King‘s College (now Columbia University), the first institution in the colonies to give degree of doctor of medicine. Following the American Revolution, the Columbia medical faculty (formerly of King’s College) was combined with the College of Physicians and Surgeons, chartered in 1809, which survives as a division of Columbia University.

  In 1893 the John Hopkins Medical School required all applicants to have a college degree and was the first to afford its students the opportunity to further their training in an attached teaching hospital. The growth of medical schools attached with established institutions of learning went together with the development of proprietary (私有的) schools of medicine run for personal profit,most of which had low standards and poor facilities. In 1910 Abraham Flexner, the American education reformer,wrote Medical Education in the United States and Canada, exposing the poor conditions of most proprietary schools. Subsequently, the American Medical Association(美国医学会)and the Association of American Medical Colleges(美国医学院协会) laid down standards for course content, qualifications of teachers, laboratory facilities, connection with teaching hospitals and licensing of medical professionals that survive to this day.

  By the late 1980s the U.S. and Canada had 142 4-year medical colleges recognized by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (医学教育联络委员会)to offer M.D. degree; during the 1987-88 academic year, 47,262 men and 25,686 women entered these colleges and an estimated 11,752 men and 5,958 women were graduated. Graduates, after a year of internship, receive license to practice if they pass an examination given by a state board or by the National Board of Medical Examiners (全美医学审查理事会)。

  n 1765 ——Medicine was first taught formally by specialists at the University of Pennsylvania.

  n 1767 ——King‘s College (now Columbia University) was the first institution in the colonies to give degree of doctor of medicine.

  n 1893 – the Hopkins Medical School first required all applicants to have a college degree and first afforded opportunity to further their training in an attached teaching hospital.

  n 1910 – Abraham Flexner, the American education reformer, wrote Medical Education. This was the beginning of modern medical education in America.

  n Today

  3-4-year premedical school → bachelor

  ↓

  4-year medical school → 1-2 year internship → examination by the National Board of Medical Examiners (全美医学审查理事会) → licensed medical doctor - M.D.

  1.2 More words and expressions

  1. 大专生a junior college student

  2. 进修生a trainee / intern

  3. 本科生an undergraduate

  4. 研究生a graduate / post-graduate

  5. 博士后post-doctoral

  6. 博士后流动站a post-doctoral mobile station

  7. 科学院院士a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (MCAS)

  8. 工程院院士a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (MCAE)

  9. 导师a tutor / advisor / instructor / supervisor

  10. 专业specialty / profession / trade

  11. 专业知识expertise

  12. 学科discipline

  13. 学科带头人discipline setter / leader

  14. 多学科研究multidisciplinary study

  15. 科研机构 scientific research institutions

  16. 高等学府institutions of higher learning

  17. 课程courses

  18. 课程内容course content

  19. 课程设置placement of courses

  20. 教材curricula / curricular materials

  21. 论文paper / article / original article

  22. 专著monographs / expertise

  23. 出版物publications

  24. 成绩 / 学分score / point

  25. 成绩单transcript / achievements report / academic report / school report / report card

  26. 毕业证书graduation certificate / diploma

  27. 学位证书diploma

  28. 学位论文thesis / dissertation

  29. 学位评审委员会the evaluation committee of academic degree

  30. 专业职称a professional title

  31. 荣誉称号an honorary title

  32. 访问学者 / 客座教授visiting scholar / visiting professor

  33. 奖学金scholarship / fellowship

  34. 毕业graduate (from / at… in…)

  35. 进修 / 深造go for advanced studies / further one‘s study / study advanced courses

  36. 攻读prepare for / work for

  37. 授予give / offer / confer

  38. 获得…资格get qualification for / be qualified for

  39. 以…结业culminate in

  40. 行医practice / practice medicine

  41. 签发issue / issued by

  42. 签名sing / signature

  1.3 Words and expressions for the exercise

  1. 组织胚胎学Histoembyrology

  2. 解剖学Anatomy

  3. 微生物学Microbiology

  4. 生理学Physiology

  5. 病理生理学Pathophysiology

  6. 生物化学Biochemistry

  7. 药理学Pharmacology

  8.药学Pharmacy

  9. 细胞生物学Cytobiology

  10.分子遗传学Molecular genetics

  11.毒理学Toxicology

  12.寄生虫学Parasitology

  13.流行病学Epidemiology

  14.妇产科学Obstetrics and gynecology

  15.儿科学Pediatrics

  16.神经学Neurology

  17.普外科general surgery

  18.泌尿外科Urosurgery

  19.神经外科Nurosurgery

  20.诊断学Diagnostics

  21.影像学Imageology

  22.实验室技术Laboratory technology

  23.护理学Nursing science

  24.卫生管理Health management

  25.麻醉学Anesthesiology

  26.中医学Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

  27.口腔学Stomatology

  28.必修课Compulsory courses

  29.选修课Elective courses

  30.轮转Rotate

  31.国家住院医师资格考试the National Accreditation Test for Resident Doctors

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