Medical English for Ph. D. Undergraduates 2002
Purpose：1. Understand a writing in a medical way；
2. Know the use of words in a scientific way；
3. Learn about some biomedical ideas， theories and conceptions in an English way；
4. Learn how to read and write medical terms in an easier way
1. Structure / Format
2. Use of words
3. Background knowledge
4. Word building
My precept about learning and teaching：
n Learning is the student‘s own business；
n You can lead a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink；
n If the student give out， the teacher will give out
So you can do whatever you like in the classroom so far you do not interfere my teaching activities， and how much you can learn from my lectures depends largely on you rather on the teacher.
1. Prepare the lessons before class；
2. Use your mind in class；
3. Do the assignments after class
Medical Training and Specialists
Main Topic： How a medical student is trained into a medical doctor， or MD in the USA.
1.1 History of Medical Education in America
In 18th-century colonial America， those who wanted to become physicians either learned as personal students from established professionals or went abroad to study in the traditional schools of London， Paris， and Edinburgh. Medicine was first taught formally by specialists at the University of Pennsylvania， beginning in 1765， and in 1776 at King‘s College （now Columbia University）， the first institution in the colonies to give degree of doctor of medicine. Following the American Revolution， the Columbia medical faculty （formerly of King’s College） was combined with the College of Physicians and Surgeons， chartered in 1809， which survives as a division of Columbia University.
In 1893 the John Hopkins Medical School required all applicants to have a college degree and was the first to afford its students the opportunity to further their training in an attached teaching hospital. The growth of medical schools attached with established institutions of learning went together with the development of proprietary （私有的） schools of medicine run for personal profit，most of which had low standards and poor facilities. In 1910 Abraham Flexner， the American education reformer，wrote Medical Education in the United States and Canada， exposing the poor conditions of most proprietary schools. Subsequently， the American Medical Association（美国医学会）and the Association of American Medical Colleges（美国医学院协会） laid down standards for course content， qualifications of teachers， laboratory facilities， connection with teaching hospitals and licensing of medical professionals that survive to this day.
By the late 1980s the U.S. and Canada had 142 4-year medical colleges recognized by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education （医学教育联络委员会）to offer M.D. degree； during the 1987-88 academic year， 47，262 men and 25，686 women entered these colleges and an estimated 11，752 men and 5，958 women were graduated. Graduates， after a year of internship， receive license to practice if they pass an examination given by a state board or by the National Board of Medical Examiners （全美医学审查理事会）。
n 1765 ——Medicine was first taught formally by specialists at the University of Pennsylvania.
n 1767 ——King‘s College （now Columbia University） was the first institution in the colonies to give degree of doctor of medicine.
n 1893 – the Hopkins Medical School first required all applicants to have a college degree and first afforded opportunity to further their training in an attached teaching hospital.
n 1910 – Abraham Flexner， the American education reformer， wrote Medical Education. This was the beginning of modern medical education in America.
3-4-year premedical school → bachelor
4-year medical school → 1-2 year internship → examination by the National Board of Medical Examiners （全美医学审查理事会） → licensed medical doctor - M.D.
1.2 More words and expressions
1. 大专生a junior college student
2. 进修生a trainee / intern
3. 本科生an undergraduate
4. 研究生a graduate / post-graduate
6. 博士后流动站a post-doctoral mobile station
7. 科学院院士a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences （MCAS）
8. 工程院院士a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering （MCAE）
9. 导师a tutor / advisor / instructor / supervisor
10. 专业specialty / profession / trade
13. 学科带头人discipline setter / leader
14. 多学科研究multidisciplinary study
15. 科研机构 scientific research institutions
16. 高等学府institutions of higher learning
18. 课程内容course content
19. 课程设置placement of courses
20. 教材curricula / curricular materials
21. 论文paper / article / original article
22. 专著monographs / expertise
24. 成绩 / 学分score / point
25. 成绩单transcript / achievements report / academic report / school report / report card
26. 毕业证书graduation certificate / diploma
28. 学位论文thesis / dissertation
29. 学位评审委员会the evaluation committee of academic degree
30. 专业职称a professional title
31. 荣誉称号an honorary title
32. 访问学者 / 客座教授visiting scholar / visiting professor
33. 奖学金scholarship / fellowship
34. 毕业graduate （from / at… in…）
35. 进修 / 深造go for advanced studies / further one‘s study / study advanced courses
36. 攻读prepare for / work for
37. 授予give / offer / confer
38. 获得…资格get qualification for / be qualified for
39. 以…结业culminate in
40. 行医practice / practice medicine
41. 签发issue / issued by
42. 签名sing / signature
1.3 Words and expressions for the exercise
14.妇产科学Obstetrics and gynecology
26.中医学Traditional Chinese Medicine （TCM）
31.国家住院医师资格考试the National Accreditation Test for Resident Doctors