Drugs：Use and Misuse
9.1 Elements of a drug insert / instruction / package
9.1.1 Name：English / Latin / trade mark / brand // chemical structure / formula
9.1.2 Description：chemical and physical （physiochemical ） properties including color，odor，smell，state （liquid， powder），ingredients，solubility （water， oil， alcohol， aldehyde），volatility，etc.
9.1.3 Pharmacology and toxicity / toxicology：actions / pharmacodynamics （how the drug acts）/ pharmacokinetics （how the drug is eliminated）// chronic （long-term）toxicity / short-term toxicity / acute toxicity / cellular toxicity / carcinogenic / teratogenic / mutagenic （mutation）/ in vitro （ex vivo）/ in vivo // distribution and elimination
9.1.4 Indications：be indicated for / in // be administered to patients with…（who…）// be intended to …
e.g. Amphotericin B Injection U.S.P.（两性没霉素B，美国药典）should be administered primarily to patients with progressive，potentially fatal forms of infections. This potent drug should not be used to treat the common inapparent forms of fungal disease which show only positive skin or serological tests.
9.1.5 Contraindications：This product is contraindicated in those patients who have shown hypersensitivity to it unless， in the opinion of the physician， the condition requiring treatment is life-threatening and amendable only to Amphotericin B therapy.
9.1.6 Cautions / precautions / warnings：Under no circumstances should a total daily dosage of 1.5mg /Kg be exceeded. Safety for use in pregnancy has not been established；therefore，it should be used during pregnancy only if possible benefits to be derived outweigh （justify） the potential risks involved.
9.1.7 Adverse reactions / side effects
9.1.8 Dosage and Administration：dose forms：powder / solution / injection / capsule / tablet / pill / bolus / suppository / gargle / mixture / suspension；route of administration： intravenously，iv / intramuscularly，im / intraperitoneally，ip / orally，po / subcutaneously / sublingually （舌下）/ topically （局部给药）/ for external use / with lukewarm（tepid）water / before meals / before retiring / when necessary / 2 tablets at a time，3 times a day / on alternative days
9.1.10 Preparation of solution：reconstruct，reconstruction / stock solution /vial / ampule /stock solution / dilute， dilution / concentration / titer / Dextrose / glucose / normal saline NS / commercially available / recommended buffer / aseptic technique / insert needle / syringe / cotton ball / sterilize / sterile
How supplied / package：This product is supplied in vials as a powder providing 50mg xxx and 40mg xxx as a buffer. At the time of manufacture，the air in the container is replaced by nitrogen / the product is sterilized for use
9.1.11 Storage：in a dry cool place / protect against exposure to light / close tightly / keep out of reach of children / away from inflammable fire / use promptly （keep in a fridge）after unsealing the container
9.1.12 Expiry / valid date / validity： use before…/ batch No. / lot No.
9.1.14：manufacturer： name / address / telephone / contact person
9.2.More words and expression about drugsretarded / sustained / controlled release / decoction （煎剂）/ ointment / plaster / adhesive / dose （帖，服，顿）/ placebo / protocol / Chinese herb，herbal，herbal medicine / patent drug （专利药）/ potent drug / pharmacopeia / institute of drug control（药检所）/ new drug evaluation / new drug application / new drug approval / clearance number（批准号）/ clinical trial / clinical study / phase I clinical study / multicenter study
9.3 Understanding the text Paragraph 1
9.3.1 A be termed（as）B
9.3.2 tend to / be likely to / be apt to / be liable to
e.g. Young children are apt to cry when they are angry.
Drug abusers are liable to contract autoimmune diseases.
9.3.3 elicit / induce
e.g. The patient looked underdeveloped，and was otherwise normal. No abnormalities were elicited from the family history.
9.3.4 give reasons for
9.3.5 factors affecting … include …
9.3.6 set / setting / purity / size / route / physical condition
9.3.7 exert effects on… / exert，exertion，overexert，overexertion
9.3.8 in the same way as…/ in much the same as …
9.3.9 increase / decrease / reduce / fall / rise by x%，x times，x fold
9.3.10 be addicted to / addiction to
9.3.12 separately / independently / respectively
Not：The three patients were given drug A，drug B and drugs respectively.
The 1-，3- and 5-year survival rate was 86%，52% and 24%，respectively.
Three radiologists were given the same plate and asked to interpret it separately / independently.
9.3.13 Among …。are / were the nature of the drug，the amount of the drug in each dose / total dosage， frequency of use，way it is administered，characteristics / totality of constitutional conditions / identity
9.3.14 –al / -ive / ic
9.4 Exercise III
1. The effects of the same drug may vary from… to…，from… to…，and from… to …。in the same individual
2. For every drug there is A）an effective dose，B）a … dose， and C）a …dose
1.It is a scientifically demonstrated fact that non-drug factors such as … are often more important than any characteristics of the drug itself.
· physiological and psychological characteristics
· physiological and psychological states
· the reason why he uses the drug
· what he expects the effects will be
· the physical and social settings in which he uses it
2.Individuals vary in many ways，not only in … but in…
3.All drugs，even…，are dangerous for some dose level under some setting. Therefore，the risks and benefits of using a drug should be justified / balance / weighted /
The use of the sue should be cautious，unless the benefits derived from the use of the drug overweighs the possible risks.