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医学阅读(六)

2005-11-14 00:00  来源:中国生命科学论坛    打印 | 收藏 |
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  Lesson Six

  Stress and Health

  6.1 Language points of the text

  1.影响:influence / affect / impact / effect

  e.g.

  influence of TV on children

  the affected part / Smoking affects health

  impact of the G.P. training strategy on medical education

  2.(由)引起:cause / contribute to /  attribute sth / to be attributed to / induce / trigger; arising from / result from / because of / due to / from

  e.g.

  The present study attempted to clarify factors that cause and contribute to the infection.

  3.result from / result in

  Incorrect:Stress may be resulted from everyday events and conditions.

  Correct:Stress may result from / arise from everyday events and conditions.

  Incorrect:Stress resulted from such exciting events as birthday parties,wedding ceremonies,promotion or winning football matches are called eustress.

  Correct:Stress resulting from such things as …。

  The same case with:occur / happen / take place / appear / disappear / arise / remain / prove to

  4.–genic(originate from):cardiogenic / nephrogenic

  5.result(used as a verb)

  e.g. 如果发生多脏起器衰竭,就会出现死亡。

  Death may result when multiorgan failure occurs.

  Multiorgan failure may result in death.

  If multiorgans fail,death may result.

  6.经历,进行:

  n(病人)undergo / receive / have / be given / be started on

  n(医生)undertake / perform / conduct / carry out / do

  e.g.

  The patient had undergone three abdominal operations before transferred to our hospital where splenectomy had to be undertaken to save the patient‘s life.

  7.长期:long-term / prolonged / long-standing

  e.g.

  Pancytopenia has been reported in individual patients who received prolonged use of the drug.

  Long-term toxic reactions of the drug have not been studied.

  This drug is not indicated for patients long-standing hypertension.

  8.主要的:main / major / leading / predominant

  e.g.

  The main reason for death of such patients is delayed diagnosis.

  The major consideration in the diagnosis of AIDS in China is whether the patient has a past history of sexual abuse.

  Cancer,heart attack and burn are the three leading causes of death in the USA.

  Food poisoning has varying clinical manifestations,with gastrointestinal sings predominant.

  6. 使…受到控制:be subjected to

  e.g.

  Note:Prices are subjected to change without being noticed.

  The experimental animals were subjected to -20℃ for 30 minutes,and changes in … were  recorded.

  7. 确定:determine

  The purpose of the present study was to determine whether expression of EM-2 is affected by intracellular or extracellular factors.

  8. 完成:Finish / complete / accomplish

  e.g.

  I finish everyday lessons in time,complete all M.D. courses in 2 years and accomplish my goal of being a doctor with sound credentials.

  6.2 Useful words and expression in Ex. II

  1.stress / distress / eustress / stressor

  2.considerable (great in quantity or degree)

  3.play a crucial role in( 起关键作用)

  4.look on…with…(以…看待)

  5.sedentary (惯与于久坐的 / 办公室工作的)

  6.…, depending on:根据… / 取决于… e.g. The dosage may vary from individual to individual, depending on their general conditions.

  7.etc. = and others

  Not: A,B,and C etc. But:A,B,C,etc.

  6.3 Words and expressions for Ex. III

  Anxiety,a response to pressures and ______,or fear and apprehension concerning the ______of some event,is the most common stress. [注意同位语的用法] Most often,stress ______because of a definite event such as a test, a date,or an interview. ______the pressures of modern life,anxiety is a very common phenomenon. The ability of ?______ anxiety is one of the qualities of modern man. There are many______to get rid of anxiety. First, learn to laugh, seeing the funny side of everyday _______. Second,learn to talk to other people, trying to think more of their problems _______ only thinking of your own difficulties. [注意ing做说明性状语] Third,______ in some physical activities such as bicycle riding, taking a fast walk, or mowing the lawn so as to shift your attention instead of brooding about your problem at all times.

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