Life and Death
Main topic：Some ideas and theories about life and death
1.1 Language points of the test：
1. to be to do
n If China is to be a strong nation in the world，she must first develop its economy，as Deng Xiaoping puts it： Development is the indisputable truth.
2. V + ing： avoid / risk / finish / resent / admit …
3. to play a [significant / important / critical / essential / crucial / key / contributive] role in doing
4. to be [fully] aware of…。 / to achieve [have / get] an awareness of
The adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs should be understood correctly （a title） →
Full awareness of adverse reactions of antihypertensive drugs / Fully aware of …
5. in order to / in an attempt to do / in attempts to do / attempt to do / attempt at + n.
6. identity / identify / identification
n Identity Card（身份证）
n certificate of paternity identification （亲子鉴定书）
n The present study attempts to identify patients who are susceptible to nephropathy and possible factors contributing to such susceptibility.
7. 结果：result / findings / outcome / consequences / sequelae / prognosis
n The results of the present study showed that …
n Physical findings， laboratory findings and operative findings all support the idea that …
n Few studies have reported long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for CSM. The present study is designed to observe …
n If anthrax （炭疽热） goes uncontrolled， the consequences would be disastrous.
n The sequelae of myocarditis are more difficult to manage than myocarditis itself.
n The prognosis of AIDS is very poor； the case-fatality rate is 100 percent.
8. as well as = in addition to
A medical student has to learn a variety of subjects including medicine as well ashistory， political education and physical education. → …including history， political education， physical education as well as medicine.
9. gain acceptance / be generally [widely] accepted [recognized] （as） …
NOT：The experimental animals were gained from the animal center of SMMU → obtained from / provided by
n Twenty-four 2-week-old SD rats of both sexes weighing 200-250g were equally randomized into three groups： Group I， using DXM （0.5mg iv bid）； Group II， Using XYZ （dose， route， frequency）， and Group III， using NS as control.
11. be accompanied by / with （伴随）；be associated with（与…有关的）
n The associated symptoms and signs included …（与此病有关的症状和体征有…）
12. appreciate = understand
n No one likes pain， but pain is the warning signal of the body. Doctors appreciate that pain tells them nerves are still alive.
13. supportive therapy / group therapy （精神治疗）/ supporting treatment （支持疗法）
14. individual / individuality
n Responses to the same drug vary from individual to individual – individual difference or individuality of a drug
15. be thought [believed / reported / said / considered] to
n Funeral ceremony is useful in helping … conclusive
n Funeral ceremony is thought to be useful … arguable
16. at first ≠ first / firstly， in the first place / to begin with / first of all
second ≠ secondary / second to ≠ secondary to
finally ≠ at last / eventually
4.2 More words and expressions
1. 出生证明birth certificate
2. 死亡证明death certificate
3. 病情证明statement of pathological condition
4. 病理检查证明statement of pathological study
5. 法医学鉴定书documentary evidence of medicolegal expertise / expertise report
6. 亲子关系概率relative chance of paternity （RCP）
7. 病历case record
9. 出院小结discharge summary
10. 病假证明certificate for sick leave
11. 化验申请单application form / slip
12. 化验报告单laboratory report
13. 手术同意书operation consent
This XXX has attended this Medical Center for the treatment of C 5 / 6 ACUTE DISC
PROLAPSE and will be unfit for normal duties for the period from 14 / 5 / 00 to
6 / 7 / 00 inclusive.
Signed （Medical Officer）： Gorji
（Print Name）： JORJI
Date of Issue： 25 / 5 / 00
4.2 More words and expressions for the exercise
1. 不是…而是… （the greatest loss） is not that … but that …
2. 尽管… for all …
3. 晚期病人terminally ill patients
4. 把…安排得井井有条put…in order
5. 不愉快/稳定的关系shaky relationship
6. 战胜 / 克服conquer
7. 冒险take risks
1. 阶段phase / stage
2. … 是指 … …occurs when …
3. 重要器官vital organs
4. 停止cease to
5. 永久性破坏permanent damage
7. 分解disintegration / decomposition
9. 安乐死euthanasia / merciful death / mercy killing
10. 生物医学论理学biomedical ethics
11. 病入膏肓incurably ill
12. 年老而痛苦不堪miserably senile
13. 希望desire to
14. 使能… be enabled to
15. 法律制裁legal penalty
16. 置… impose on
17. 死亡的方式means of death
1.Modern scientists divide the process of dying into two phases–clinical or temporary death and biological death. Clinical death occurs when the vital organs，such as the heart or lungs，have ceased to function but have not suffered permanent damage. The organism can still be revived at this phase. Biological death occurs when changes in the organism lead to the disintegration of cells and tissues of vital cells and tissues of vital organs. Death is then irreversible and final.
2.Euthanasia，or merciful death，or mercy killing，is a vital problem in biological ethics. It means that any individual who is incurably ill or miserably senile，whose condition is hopeless，and who desire to die，should be enabled to do so， for which no legal penalty should be imposed on him， his family or those who provide the means of death.