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您的位置:医学教育网 > 卫生网校 > 医学英语 > 正文

医学英语——常用解剖术语

2009-06-09 14:17 医学教育网
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  1、总论[Introduction]

  superior[上]

  inferior[下]

  Cranial[头侧]

  Caudal[尾侧]

  anterior[前]

  posterior[后]

  ventral[腹侧]

  dorsal[背侧]

  medial[内侧]

  lateral[外侧]

  internal[内]

  external[外]

  superficial[浅]

  profundal[深]

  proximal[近侧]

  distal[远侧]

  ulnar[尺侧]

  radial[桡侧]

  tibial[胫侧]

  fibular[腓侧]

  2、运动系统[locomotor (kinetic) system]

  vertebrae[椎骨]

  cervical vevtebrae[颈椎]

  thoracic vertebrae[胸椎]

  lumbar vertebrae[腰椎]

  sacrum[骶骨]

  sternum[胸骨]

  rib[肋骨]

  thoracic cage[胸廓]

  skull[颅]

  frontal bone[额骨]

  parietal bone[顶骨]

  occipital bone[枕骨]

  temporal bone[颞骨]

  sphenoid bone[蝶骨]

  ethmoid bone[筛骨]

  mandible (submaxilla)[下颌骨]

  maxilla (supermaxilla)[上颌骨]

  nasal bone[鼻骨]

  coronal (sagital, lambdoid) suture [冠状(矢状,人字)缝]

  orbit[眶]

  clavicle[锁骨]

  scapula (shoulder blade)[肩胛骨]

  sternum (breast bone)[胸骨]

  manubrium sterni (presternum)[胸骨柄]

  midsternum[胸骨体]

  xiphoid[剑突]

  humerus[肱骨]

  radius[桡骨]

  ulna[尺骨]

  carpal bone[腕骨]

  metacarpal bone [掌骨]

  phalanges[指(趾)骨]

  hip bone[髋骨]

  ilium[髂骨]

  ischium [坐骨]

  pubis[耻骨]

  femur [股骨]

  patella[髌骨]

  tibia[胫骨]

  fibula [腓骨]

  articulation[关节]

  ligament[韧带]

  flexion[屈]

  extension[伸]

  adduction[收]

  abduction[展]

  medial rotation[旋内]

  lateral rotation[旋外]

  pronation[旋前]

  supination[旋后]

  circumductoin[环转]

  vertebral column[脊柱]

  intervertebral disc[椎间盘]

  temporal-mandibular joint[颞下颌关节]

  shoulder joint[肩关节]

  elbow joint[肘关节]

  radiocarpal joint[肩关节]

  radiocarpal joint[桡腕关节]

  pelvis[骨盆]

  hip joint[髋关节]

  knee joint[膝关节]

  ankle joint[踝关节]

  muscle [肌肉]

  tendon[肌腱]

  fascia[筋膜]

  tendinous sheath[腱鞘]

  trapezius[斜方肌]

  latissimus dorsi[背阔肌]

  sternocleidomastoid[胸锁乳突的]

  scalenus [斜角肌]

  pectoralis major[胸大肌]

  intercostales[肋间肌]

  diaphragm[膈肌]

  inguinal canal[腹股沟管]

  masseter[咬肌]

  temporalis[颞肌]

  deltoid[三角肌]

  biceps brachii[肱二头肌]

  triceps brachii[肱三头肌]

  axillary fossa [腑窝]

  gluteus maximus[臀大肌]

  piriformis[梨状肌]

  sartorius[缝匠肌]

  quadriceps femoris[股四头肌]

  triceps surae[小腿三头肌]

  femoral triangle[股三角]

  3、内脏[Viscera]

  viscera[内脏]

  oral cavity[口腔]

  lip[唇]

  cheek[颊]

  palate[腭]

  tooth[牙]

  dentes[牙]

  tongue[舌]

  parotid gland[腮腺]

  pharynx[咽]

  esophagus[食管]

  stomach gaster[胃]

  duodenum[十二指肠]

  jejunum[空肠]

  ileum [回肠]

  large intestine[大肠]

  caecum[盲肠]

  vermiform (appendix)[阑尾]

  colon[结肠]

  rectum[直肠]

  anal canal[肛管]

  dentate line[齿状线]

  anus[肛门]

  liver (hepar)[肝]

  porta hepatis[肝门]

  gallblader[胆囊]

  pancreas[胰]

  nose[鼻]

  nasal cavity[鼻腔]

  paranasal sinus[鼻旁窦]

  larynx[喉]

  laryngeal cavity[喉腔]

  vocal cord[声带]

  trachea[气管]

  bronchi[支气管]

  lung [肺]

  pulmonary[肺的]

  pleura[胸膜]

  mediastinum[纵隔]

  kidney[肾]

  renal pilvis[肾盂]

  ureter[输尿管]

  urinary bladder[膀胱]

  urethra[尿道]

  testis[睾丸]

  epididymis[附睾]

  ductus deferens[输精管]

  spermatic cord[精索]

  prostate[前列腺]

  scrotum[阴囊]

  penis[阴茎]

  ovary[卵巢]

  uterine tube[输卵管]

  uterus[子宫]

  vagina[阴道]

  clitoris[阴蒂]

  mamma (breast)[乳房]

  mammary papilla (nipple)[乳头]

  perineum[会阴]

  pelvic diaphragm[盆膈]

  peritoneum[腹膜]

  omentum[网膜]

  4、心血管系统[Cardiovascular system]

  heart[心]

  artery[动脉]

  vein[静脉]

  capillary[毛细血管]

  atrium[心房]

  ventricle[心室]

  tricuspid valve[三尖瓣]

  bicuspid valve[二尖瓣]

  aortic valve[主动脉瓣]

  pulmonary valve[肺动脉瓣]

  sinuatrial node[窦房结]

  atrioventricular node[房室结]

  atrioventricular bundle[房室束]

  right/left bundle branch[右/左束支]

  coronary artery[冠状动脉]

  coronary sinus[冠状窦]

  pericardium[心包]

  aorta[主动脉]

  innominate artery[无名动脉(头臂干)]

  common carotid artery[颈总动脉]

  carotid sinus [颈动脉窦]

  internal(external) carotid artery[颈内(外)动脉]

  facial artery[面动脉]

  subclavian artery[锁骨下动脉]

  mesenteric artery[肠系膜动脉]

  common iliac artery[髂总动脉]

  popliteal artery [腘动脉]

  vena cava [腔静脉]

  internal jugular vein[颈内静脉]

  cephalic vein[头静脉]

  basilic vein[贵要静脉]

  saphenous vein[隐静脉]

  lymphatic duct[淋巴导管]

  thoracic duct[胸导管]

  lymph node[淋巴结]

  spleen[脾]

  thymus[胸腺]

  5、感觉器[sense organs]

  sensory organ[感觉器]

  receptor[感受器]

  visual organ[视器]

  eyeball [眼球]

  cornea[角膜]

  sclera[巩膜]

  choroid [脉络膜]

  ciliary body[睫状体]

  iris[虹膜]

  retina[视网膜]

  optic disc[视神经盘]

  macula lutea[黄斑]

  aqueous humor[房水]

  lens[晶状体]

  vitreous body[玻璃体]

  eyelid [眼睑]

  conjunctiva[结膜]

  lacrimal gland[泪腺]

  vestibulocochlear organ[前庭蜗器]

  ear( auris) [耳]

  auricle[耳廓]

  acoustic meatus[耳道]

  tympanic cavity[鼓室]

  tympanic membrane[鼓膜]

  pharyngotympanic tube [咽鼓管]

  bony(membranous) labyrinth[骨(膜)迷路]

  vestibule [前庭]

  semicircular canal[半规管]

  cochlea[耳蜗]

  cochlear duct[蜗管]

  olfactory organ[嗅器]

  gustatory organ[味器]

  taste bud[味蕾]

  skin[皮肤]

  6、神经系统[Nervous system]

  central nervous system[中枢神经系统]

  peripheral nervous system[周围神经系统]

  visceral nerve[内脏神经医学教.育网搜集]

  afferent nerve[传入神经]

  efferent nerve[传出神经]

  neuron[神经元]

  axon [轴突]

  dendrite[树突]

  glia [神经胶质]

  gray matter [灰质]

  white matter[白质]

  cortex[皮质]

  madulla[髓质]

  nucleus[神经质]

  ganglion[神经节]

  fasciculus[神经束]

  nerve[神经]

  spinal nerve[脊神经]

  cervical plexus[颈丛]

  brachial plexus[臂丛]

  lumbar plexus[腰丛]

  sacral plexus [骶丛]

  phrenic nerve[膈神经]

  median nerve[正中神经]

  ulnar nerve[尺神经]

  radial nerve[桡神经]

  femoral nerve[股神经]

  ischiatic nerve[坐骨神经]

  common peroneal nerve[腓总神经]

  cranial nerve[颅(脑)神经]

  olfactory nerve[嗅神经]

  optic nerve[视神经]

  oculomotor nerve[动眼神经]

  trochlear nerve[滑车神经]

  trigeminal verve[三叉神经]

  abducent nerve[展神经]

  facial nerve[面神经]

  vestibulocochlear nerve[前庭蜗神经]

  glossopharyngeal nerve[舌咽神经]

  vagus nerve[迷走神经]

  accessary nerve[副神经]

  hypoglossal nerve[舌下神经]

  autonomic nervous system[自主神经]

  vegetative nervous system[植物神经]

  sympathetic nerve[交感神经]

  parasympathetic nerve[副交感神经]

  spinal cord[脊髓]

  encephalon (brain)[脑]

  brain stem[脑干]

  medulla oblongata[延髓]

  pons [脑桥]

  mesencephalon[中脑]

  midbrain[中脑]

  cerebellum[小脑]

  diencephalon[间脑]

  thalamus[丘脑]

  hypothalamus[下丘脑]

  hypophysis[垂体]

  telencephalon[端脑]

  cerebrum[大脑]

  cerebral cortex[大脑皮质]

  corpus striatum[纹状体]

  internal capsule[内囊]

  spinothalamic tract[皮质脊髓束]

  medial lemniscus[内侧丘系]

  lateral lemniscus[外侧丘系]

  spinal lemniscus[脊髓丘系]

  trigeminal lemniscus[三叉丘系]

  7、体表标记[Anatomic marks]

  naso-labial groove[鼻唇沟]

  suprasternal fossa[胸骨上窝]

  supraclavicular fossa[锁骨上窝]

  infraclavicular fossa[锁骨下窝]

  armpit (axillary fossa)[腋窝]

  midsternal (midian) line[胸骨中线(正中线)]

  anterior midian line[前正中线]

  parasternal line[胸骨旁线]

  midclavicular line[锁骨中线]

  mammillary (nipple, milk) line[乳线]

  posterior (mid-, anterior) axillary line[腋后(中,前)线]

  scapular line[肩胛线]

  midspinal line[脊柱中线]

  dorsomedian line[后正中线]

  linea paravertebralis [脊椎旁线]

  the left (right) upper abdomen (quadrant)[左(右)上腹]

  epigastrium[上腹部]

  the middle abdomen[中腹部]

  the lower abdomen[下腹部]

  linea pararectalis[腹直肌旁线]

  anterior superior spine[髂前上棘]

  symphysis pubis (symphysion)[耻骨联合]

  ischial tuberosity[坐骨结节]

  groin (inguen)[腹股沟]

  popliteal fossa[腘窝]

  upper extremity(limb)[上肢]

  lower extremity(limb)[下肢]

  posterior superior spine[髂后上嵴]

  anterior (dorsal) part of chest(前(后)胸部)

  scapular region[肩胛区]

  anterior (posterior) fontanelle[前(后)囱]

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